Jan 302016
 

If you’re interested in visiting the Antarctic, the Arctic, or any of the other places where I’ve done fieldwork, send me an email,

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 January 30, 2016  General 1 Response »
Apr 182016
 

Elephant Herd Approaches the Waterhole-2
Elephant Herd Approaching A Waterhole 

Field Notes:
In the midst of a herd of elephants I am always too much in thrall to feel my insignificance. It is when elephants are next to other animals, or when the adults among them are beside the elephant very young that scale becomes clear to me. Compared to a great bull everything is small. Size matters. Elephants do not have much to fear.

Baby Elephant Nursing-24270
Baby Elephant Nursing

There are exceptions: For the babies, an inadvertent encounter with a venomous snake; a team of lions in the African dark hunting adolescents or perhaps in extremis, even the full-grown; a man or woman with a gun…

In the latter case after a killing elephants are capable of a simmering anger, and of revenge. The herd that has lost someone to poachers is a collectively dangerous beast. People expecting the romantic version; those who should know better but too inexperienced to take note of the all too obvious signs; those with the sense to be aware but careless or unknowing of the recent history, all invite disaster. They have been stretched by the powerful trunk, pinned by tusks, kneeled on and crushed. Though this is the exception. Elephants prefer flap their ears, trumpet loudly, run back and forth, do almost everything they can to dissuade you before the ears fold back, head lowers, the raised trunk drops and the mock charge turns the irrevocable corner into something else entirely.

Young Elephants Jousting-24271
Young Elephants Jousting

Though not in the same league as poaching, crowded conditions are a tremendous irritant for elephants, just as they are for most other species (including us). Nowhere is there more trespass into the confines of normal animal personal space than a Sub-Saharan waterhole at the end of dry season. Natural enemies are forced to close proximity: Hippos and crocs. Lions and zebra. Hyena, and everybody.

Crocs and elephants…

The largest Nile crocodiles weigh in at 700 kilos or more, and can attain lengths of over 3 meters. Elephants are twice as long as any living crocodile and (even adult females) weigh in at thousands of kilos. Thousands. To flatten the skull of a Nile crocodile, even a large one, is not outside the realm of the possible. One good stomp and we enter the realm of the certain. If we argue that the elephant is too much at risk if it attacks then the question becomes, risk relative to what? Coming close, close enough to make a viable threat is as dangerous as following through. Perhaps more so. If an elephant strikes that heavy blow, the crocodile is one and done. Threat, however, turns the advantage to the croc who now has the option to bite, a bite with its own crushing logic.

The more I look, the more certain I become that restraint is the norm and violence the exception in the unhindered animal world.

Elephant Herd at Dusk-24269
Elephants Drinking, at Dusk

Travelogue:  This August (2016) I will be in the Maasai Mara with Donald Young Safaris. Don operates one of the premier African tented safaris.  To be in the midst of the wildlife is the best experience, and this is what he provides.  Don and I know each other through the Explorers Club (he is a longtime member, I was inducted this Spring). He is serious conservationist, and as such, his concerns extend to both animals and the humans who share the land with them.  Don can be reached at www.DonaldYoungSafaris.com

 

 April 18, 2016  General No Responses »
Mar 242016
 

BANNER - Cubs scrambleing after their mother-3076Two Cubs-of-the-Year scrambling after their Mother

Akpatok is a closed island.  Landing is prohibited and approach by boat is restricted to a distance of 500 meters!  I was working from a Zodiac inflatable, which meant I did not have an entirely stable platform, and though I was shooting with a full sensor camera and and a 500 MM lens with a 1.4X extender on it (1.4 X 500 = 700 MM), a lot of it was guesswork.  By which I mean, I could see my targets – in this case the cubs and their mother – but had no idea what they were doing. And I was using the camera hand-held and braced against the gunnel of the boat – near impossible conditions.  Seconds after we sighted the mother and cubs moving down the beach, we spotted a large male polar bear off to the left.
 
Male Polar Bear ( middle left) Roaring at Fleeing Female and Cubs (lower right)-3120
Male Polar Bear ( middle left); Fleeing Female and her Cubs (lower right)
 
The reasonable assumption was that the female was not anxious to let him get too close, but in the instant, it was just an assumption. After a few minutes, with the pitch and yaw of the boat and the by now considerable distance, we lost sight of the mother and cubs.
Aboard the main ship that evening, I ran through what I’d shot.  Which looked like a lot of nothing. It was not until several weeks later, at home and recovered from the trip, that I was able to revisit these frames. As it turned out, the male polar bear was much closer to the female and her cubs at the onset. She gained on him, then once again lost ground.  Throughout, he was periodically roaring – mouth wide open – for the space of several steps, i.e. striding and roaring.  However, he never left the upper part of the beach just below the cliffs.
 
Big male bear roaring!-3119
Male Polar Bear Roaring
 
The female was moving at a good clip, as evidenced by the fact that the cubs were scrambling to keep up with her. Then, rather suddenly, the male was alone on the beach, continuing on his way, and the female and cubs had vanished.
 Male Polar Bear Continues Along the Beach-3177
Male Polar Bear Continues on his Way
 
Eventually, I found the female. When the male polar bear had closed again to about 70 meters the female had plunged into the water.
 
The female dives into the water-3173
 Female Polar Bear Smashes into the Surf
 
But there was no sign of the cubs.
My cameras shoot at 10 to 14 frames a second.  There is always a certain amount of “blow-by” after the main action is captured and I began to review those frames. This meant searching no more than a few percent of the photo at a time. Pixels are visible at this magnification and I was looking more for light areas than resolvable forms. Whitecaps on the water added to the confusion.
Finally, I found the cubs, not far from where the female made her plunge: one head, then two, swimming the wrong way.  There they were going with the current instead of against it, back towards the male. Multiplying the speed of the waves breaking on shore by the frame rate of the camera I was able to come up an estimate for the speed of the current:  better than 8 knots.
Now, the female had a choice to make. Continue on her way, or go back for her cubs?
Bear-on-bear combat is no different that bar handed combat between humans. Throw weight trumps agility. This is why boxers are restricted to their own weight class. If it came to actual physical contact the female would have been injured or killed outright.  This was why she was fleeing in the first place:  But, she went back for them.
 
Female turns back for the cubs-3177
Female (center right) Swimming Toward Cubs (two light areas parallel to her) [Note: The small black dots are the female’s nose and eyes thus indicating her direction]
 
Somehow she communicated to the cubs that they needed to turn around. In an instant they did an about face. She turned also, the cubs following her against the current, presumably toward safety.
 
Cubs following their mother against the current-3184
Cubs Following Their Mother
 
The camera lost sight of them after that, and as we saw, the male simply continued on his way never having descended toward the water.  But at their closest, the female and her cubs could not have been more than 20 meters from the male bear.
It could be that all that big male bear wanted was for the female and her cubs to take their competition elsewhere. As one often sees in the summer, his hind quarters were stained – bear diarrhea – the result of too much protein and not enough fat. Summer is a meager time for bears and they are mostly living on reserves and luck.  Akpatok is a (major) thick-billed murre nesting colony and he may have been catching birds, and the occasional egg. There is also the possibility of carrion washing ashore. When Inuit hunt beluga whales they strip only the fat and leave the what whalers called the “kreng” – a derogatory term for carcass – which is the bulk of the whale. It is a hugely wasteful practice occasioned, as one of my Inuit informants told me, by mercury in the meat. However, the toxic levels of PCB in the fat they ignore. The fat “tastes just like coconut.”  And as to the steady decline of the whales? As another informant told me with considerable annoyance, “There are plenty of whales.” The idea that this can continue is nonsense. The idea that half a ton of polar bear can survive in an ice-free arctic on birds and eggs and carcasses is at best, wishful thinking. It is fat bears need to survive the cold; fat that provides the reserves required for female polar beats to nurse their young; fat and a great deal of it that polar bears need in order to continue being polar bears.
But what you have is what you defend, and the male would have been unlikely to want to share the little he had. Hence, at least one motive for the chase.
That said, this was in July. The male bear may not have closed on the female and cubs because he wasn’t up to it. The Arctic in July is not Miami but it’s comparatively warm and the males great bulk may have prevented him from going any faster without exceeding the limits of his thermal regulation. A meal of bear cub is not outside the behavioral limits of a male polar bear though in the past, the primary motive in such cases was likely to force the female to breed again. Given current conditions, hunger might play a more significant role relative to sex, but a nursing polar bear is a determined and ferocious creature. Above all, it was that female bear doing a thing we expect from the best part of ourselves, that saved them.
My prose essays, including the one on this encounter, are broadcast nationally on Public Radio International’s Living on Earth. 
 
CREDITS:  My visit to Akpatok was made possible by the generous support of Adventure Canada www.AdventureCanada.com. Special thanks are due to Mather James Swan, who made every effort to get me the best vantage for my photos and the acquisition of this story.
 March 24, 2016  General No Responses »
Mar 112016
 

Akpatok Island, Hudson Strait

Akpatok Panorama-0120

Akpatok is a large island in Hudson Strait, Canada (approximately 60.2 N 68.4 W). I was there with Adventure Canada (www.adventurecanada.com) July 2015. There were polar bears on shore, drawn to the island by the large nesting colonies of thick-billed murre. Contrary to what you may have heard, neither the birds nor their eggs or chicks provide more than a snack to a polar bear, and at that, one that is hard to digest. Bears need fat. Fat comes from seals. To hunt seals bears need ice (they cannot match a seal’s speed or mobility in water). No ice means no polar bears. Land foods will never make up the difference. Nevertheless, at a time of year when they are in the middle of their long summer fast, thick-billed murre are better than nothing and the polar bears appear in significant numbers.

The most unusual polar bear/human interaction I’ve ever seen – and certainly the most amusing – is detailed in the photos below.  A big male bear climbed up the cliff to a great height, made himself comfortable, and then watched as a tourist plane flew right by him. I cannot say for certain this is what that polar bear climbed up to see, but there were no birds nesting anywhere near that part of the cliff, and as far as I can tell, other than the scheduled flight by Air Inuit, no reason to climb so high. Anyone who’s been around polar bears knows they are very smart. How smart?  No comment…

You can hear me read the essay I wrote about this particular polar bear encounter on Living on Earth, http://loe.org/shows/segments.html?programID=16-P13-00003&segmentID=6

Mark Seth Lender

Polar Bear Climbs the Talus Mound

 

Polar Bear Climbing the Talus Mound, 200'-3238

 

Higher still…

Higher still...-3307

 

Polar Bear at 400′ – Nothing there, and thinking, “Higher?”

400 feet -3352

And higher he goes!

And higher...-3396

HERE COMES THE PLANE!!

HERE COMES THE PLANE!-3483

 

THE PLANE!

The Rolls Royce engines hit the redline with a Roar, that even a polar bear can't match...-3476

 

THE PLANE!-3496

 

There goes the plane…

There goes the plane...-3497

 

And Polar Bear lies down.

And bear lies down.-3563

 

 

 

 March 11, 2016  General No Responses »